Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Polymerization of globular actin (G-actin) leads to a structural filament (F-actin) in the form of a two-stranded helix. Each actin can bind to 4 others.
In vertebrates 3 main groups of actin isoforms, alpha, beta and gamma have been identified. The alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. The beta and gamma actins coexist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton and as mediators of internal cell motility.
Belongs to the actin family.
Involvement in disease
Defects in ACTG1 are the cause of deafness autosomal dominant type 20 (DFNA20) [MIM:604717]; also called autosomal dominant deafness type 26 (DFNA26). DFNA20 is a form of sensorineural hearing loss. Sensorineural deafness results from damage to the neural receptors of the inner ear, the nerve pathways to the brain, or the area of the brain that receives sound information.
The methylhistidine determined by Bienvenut et al is assumed to be the tele-methylhistidine isomer by similarity to the mouse ortholog.